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V. E. PANARIN, N. E. SVAVIL’NY, and A. I. FAUSTOVA
«Mechanisms of Fullerene-like Structures Formation from Plasma at Electric Arc Sputtering of Carbon»
PACS numbers: 61.46.Fg, 61.46.Np, 61.48.De, 81.05.U-, 81.05.ub, 81.07.De, 81.16.Hc
The mechanisms of single-walled and multi-walled carbon-nanotubes formation in the arc discharge are offered. The distinctive feature of the mechanism of single-walled-tubes formation based on the discharge with doping of electrodes by catalysts is the scenario, at which a leading role carries out by carbon nanoparticles, which left anode. In plasma of an arc discharge, nanoparticles, which have taken off from the anode, are in the free flight until they will not get on the cathode. Thus, they are actually isolated bodies, on which atoms, ions and more complicated complexes are deposited. As a result of condensation processes of atoms, complexes, and of recombination of ions on a surface of freely flying particles, the lasts become multicomponent (carbon–catalysts) and heat up to high temperatures. At hit into colder areas of plasma even during the drift to a collector (cold or heated), it is cooled, and on sides of a crystallizing catalyst, the structured carbon in the form of single-walled nanotubes (or bundles of nanotubes) is deposited. Most probably, multi-walled tubes are formed directly in the deposit where there is a suitable temperature for annealing of soot nanoparticles, which are arrived to the cathode from the discharge gap. In this case, the arc discharge is only the generator of nanoparticle soot with the initial structure, which is suitable for such an annealing.