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N. O. Artyukhova, J. Krmela, V. Krmelova
«Final Drying of Ammonium Nitrate Granules with Nanoporous Structure in Multistage Shelf Apparatuses: Embodiment and Technological Parameters»
PACS numbers: 47.61.-k, 61.43.Gt, 68.37.Hk, 81.05.Rm, 81.20.Ev, 83.80.Fg, 89.20.Kk
The article deals with the experimental study regarding the final drying process of porous ammonium nitrate (PAN) granules. The final drying stage implementation in the general technological line to obtain PAN granules with nanoporous layers or multilayer PAN granules with porous structure is substantiated. The main advantages of multistage drying in applying to the nanoporous-structure formation process on the PAN granules are described. The tool for the automated calculation of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic conditions to carry out the final drying stage is proposed. The influence of the PAN-granules’ residence time within the dryer workspace, the drying agent features, and the degree of flow compression (i.e., the ratio of the PAN-granules’ volumes within the dryer workspace and the total space of the device) on the nature of the nanoporous structure of the granules (i.e., ‘mechanical’ or ‘modified’ nature of the pores) is evaluated. The results of PAN-granules’ microscopy after the three stages of final drying are represented (the granules are humidified with ammonium nitrate solution and are heat treated in a vortex granulator), including in the modes of insufficient, optimal, and excessive residence time for the granules. The influence of flow compression degree on the quality of the nanoporous structure in PAN granules is established. The peculiarities of changes of nanoporous granule structure and its specific properties (namely, retentivity and absorptivity, relative area of nanoporous surface, area of nanoporous surface per mass unit of PAN granule) after each stage of final drying are determined. The findings of investigations allow to determine the optimal time and temperature of final drying process as well as to establish the maximum load of the dryer with PAN granules (maximum degree of flow compression), under which PAN granules have no ‘mechanical’ pores.
Keywords: porous ammonium nitrate, nanoporous structure, vortex granulator, technology
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