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A. E. Artyukhov, J. Krmela
«Multilayer Granules of Ammonium Nitrate with Nanostructured Porous Layers: Production Technology and Quality Indicators»
PACS numbers: 47.61.-k, 61.43.Gt, 68.37.Hk, 81.05.Rm, 81.20.Ev, 83.80.Fg, 89.20.Kk
The article gives reasons for the possibility to obtain porous ammonium nitrate (PAN) with several nanostructured porous layers in vortex granulators. The main results of studies regarding the structure of nanoporous layers of PAN granules obtained by the humidification method with subsequent heat treatment in a highly turbulent directed (vortex) flow of the drying agent are presented. As shown, it is possible to obtain a given nanoporous surface with a defined pore size due to the selection of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic parameters of the vortex granulator. Several types of humidifiers are proposed in this research, and features of the nanoporous layer structure depending on the humidifier composition are shown. As a result, it is necessary to provide the following properties of PAN granules: preservation of the primary crystalline structure and phase composition of the core in the granule; the strong core without mechanical damages; the minimum number of ‘mechanical’ pores throughout the granules; inner layers, which should have a certain amount of micropores (with size of less than 2 nm) and mesopores (with size of 2 to 50 nm); middle layers, which should preferably consist of mesopores and a number of macropores (over 50 nm); a surface consisting predominantly of macropores. The technique to use humidifiers for formation of necessary configuration of nanoporous layer (on the example of the ordinary ammonium nitrate granules with two nanoporous layers of different structure and additional moistening with water) is proposed. The results regarding the determination of absorptivity and retentivity of PAN granules, nanoporous layers of which are formed by different combinations of humidifiers, are presented. The basic technological parameters to carry out the nanoporous-layers’ formation process and the algorithm to calculate the target process are proposed. An example of the constructive implementation of a vortex granulator to obtain multilayer PAN granules with nanoporous layers is demonstrated.
Keywords: porous ammonium nitrate, nanoporous structure, vortex granulator, production technology
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